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Raw material used in the fastener industry can be broadly classified into Ferrous, Non-Ferrous & Non-Metallic material. Non-Metallic material is rarely used for general purpose applications. Fasteners manufactured with these materials find application in electrical insulators. Non-Ferrous materials like brass, copper, aluminum are used for general purpose electrical applications. Ferrous material is the most preferred raw material used for screw manufacture. Due to the high tensile strength demand of the application, numerous ferrous alloys have been developed to meet the requirement of the engineering industry over the period of time. The right choice of the raw material greatly influences the selection of any screw / fastener.
         
         
 
Screws / Fasteners are manufactured by three different routes. Cold Forging, Hot Forging & Machining. Cold forging method is generally preferred for all types of screw products. However there is a limitation for the sizes that can be manufactured by this method. Hence for bigger size bolts, Hot Forging method is adopted. Machining method is the oldest method in existence. In recent times most of applications do not need machined screws. Nevertheless, wherever precision is involved, machining method still commands supremacy over all other routes of fastener manufacturing.
     
 
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